TITIAN MUHIBAH STUDENT IMMERSION 2012 BY CIMB NIAGA AND KEMDIKBUD RI

OFFICIAL REPORT

STUDENT IMMERSION PROGRAM IN MALAYSIA & SINGAPORE

19th – 22nd NOVEMBER 2012

Sponsored by CIMB Niaga and Indonesian Ministry of Educatio0

Created by:

Firmansyah Shidiq Wardhana (CIMB Overseas Scholarship Batch 4)

University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Summary of Titian Muhibah Programme 2012

PT. CIMB Niaga and Indonesian Ministry of Education has organized astounding joint-reward programme for their scholars to unleash their personal development qualities, enhance the scholar’s academic and soft skill called Titian Muhibah Programme 2012. This program aims to reward 30 scholars from Indonesia who have proven their academic and non-academic significant progression in national and international scale within academic year of 2012 in university and high school level. This program has set tight selection through integrated selection of academic and non-academic achievement of the scholars, on-going monitoring and evaluation by CIMB Niaga and Kemdikbud and also essay-writing selection about the contemporary issues which happen among Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. After conducting its selection within 3 months duration, CIMB Niaga and Kemdikbud issued the official announcement about prospective scholars who considered as shortlisted candidates to get Titian Muhibah reward and follow Titian Muhibah Programme that was conducted in Malaysia and Singapore from 19th to 22nd November 2012.

The involved scholars consisted of 14 scholars from CIMB Niaga-BU Scholarship who pursue their study in university level in Indonesia and Malaysia. And also, 16 Scholars of Indonesian Ministry of Education Scholarship Programme who pursue their study in university and high school level within Indonesia. Moreover, there were 3 representatives of official organizer who accompanied the scholars to undergo this program from PT. CIMB Niaga who were represented by Mrs. Susi Hermanses, Mrs. Luh Nindtyawati and Mr. Tupon Setiawan. The other representatives were from Indonesian Ministry of Education who were represented by Mr.Rahman, Mr.Narendra and Ms.Dian.

The set of Titian Muhibah Programme was conducted for 4 days in the form of integrated platform of unleashing scholar’s potential as follows : (1) corporate visits in CIMB Group Headquarters Malaysia, CIMB Singapore with Tan Lyman (CEO) and Air Asia with Tony Hernandez (CEO), (2) The scholars night cultural performance and gala dinner with Mrs Ung Su Ling and Zuraida Kamaruddin from CIMB Group (3) educational interactive discussion in Indonesian General Embassy of Kuala Lumpur with Secretary of Socio-Culture and Communication Function (4) academic visits in Nanyang Technological University with Prof.Tegoeh Djoejokusomo (5) exploring tourism and historical centres in Malaysia and Singapore.

FURTHER DETAILS ABOUT TITIAN MUHIBAH PRO
GRAMME 2012:

  1. 1.      First Day of Titian Muhibah Programme (Monday, 19th November 2012), Malaysia
  2. A.    Interactive Talk and Discussion with The Complete Banker Fellows in CIMB Group

The first day of Titian Muhibah programme was conducted on Monday, 19th November 2012 to have corporate visits to the headquarter of CIMB Group as a leading banking industry of ASEAN Region which locates in CIMB Group Commerce Buiding of Menara Bumiputera in Jalan Raja Laut Area, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.  The first session was briefing and interactive talk-show with Top 3 of The Complete Banker Indonesia Fellows of CIMB Niaga Batch 3 who pursues overseas exposure within 3 months in CIMB Group Malaysia. The fellows said that The Complete Banker Program is the main trademark and the best external recruitment methods of human resources department product of CIMB Group for the fresh graduates of undergraduate and postgraduate level. The objectives of TCB Program is to cultivate young achievers with the potential to excel in the ASEAN banking sector to contribute for the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2020 that CIMB leads the ways in striving for.

Titian Muhibah Scholars and TCB Fellows in CIMB Group Headquarter

CIMB-TCB

(Courtesy of Photos by Khaira Al Hafi and Noerlia)

  1. B.     Corporate Visits in CIMB Group Headquarters, Malaysia

Afterwards having interactive discussion between the scholars with the prospective fellows regarding to the TCB and related banking industry of CIMB Group development, the scholars were welcomed by official representative of CIMB Group Malaysia which were represented by Mr Ezarul Suhaimi as Recruiters of CIMB Group and Mrs Magdalene from Human Resources Department. Both of them guided all of the scholars to explore in detail about CIMB Group Headquarters Office.  As known that they informed about the segregate industries of CIMB Bank to the Investment & Wholesale Banking, Consumer and Retail Banking & Islamic Banking in 18 countries in Asia. They led scholars to explore in detail about some of official rooms in CIMB Headquarter such as corporate and retail banking floor, marketing and productions management of CIMB financial and banking products, multimedia management area, work-life balance of recreational area which consists of knowledge centre and gym for the staff. The astounding part was their explanation about the regional-centralised of CIMB Group Website as a platform to recruit people who want to pursue their career in CIMB within ASEAN Area which open the boundaries of regional limit within ASEAN.

Titian Muhibah Scholars with Mr.Ezarul Suhaimi and CIMB Group Rewards

TM-CIMB Singapore CEO

(Courtesy of Photos by Firmansyah SW and Noerlia)

  1. C.    Gala Dinner and Cultural Performance by Titian Muhibah Scholars

The last event that was undergone by the scholars for the first day of Titian Muhibah Programme was cultural night performance and gala dinner in Rebung Restaurant with Mrs.Ung Su Ling and Zuraida Kamaruddin from CIMB Group. The Gala Dinner was conducted in Rebung Restaurant which is possessed by famous chef in Malaysia. All of the provided foods were delicious Malay culinary such as roti jala, nasi impit, nasi lemak, nasi dagang and etc. After having awesome dinner, the next agenda was first cultural performance which represented by 3 high school students of Kemdikbud Scholarship who performed Balinese dance that successfully attracted the audiences. The second performance was represented by Choir Group of BU-CIMB Niaga Scholarship students who performed Indonesian Medley Cultural Folk Songs. All of the people who involved in this event were enthusiastic and willing to network an endless friendship and enhance people-by-people relation which is considered as necessary inventory for the future.

  1. 2.      Second Day of Titian Muhibah Programme (Tueday, 20th November 2012)
  2. City Tour of Istana Negara and Petronas Tower of Kuala Lumpur

The second day agenda was quite packed since all of the scholars have to utilize their time to get the benefits to unleash their potentials through this program. Visiting the New Istana Negara in as the official living place of Yang Di-Pertuan Agong  as the honoured king of Malaysia in Malaysian Government was mesmerizing tour for all of the scholars. The Istana Negara Baru Malaysia has approximate area within 11-12 hectares in Jalan Duta, nearby Klang River in Petaling Area. The architecture of Istana Negara Baru was influenced by Islamic Malay and Middle East styles. In addition, Istana Negara Baru has three main components which are official components, army and diraja component and administration component.

TM-IN

After visiting Istana Negara Baru, All of the scholars had a chance to visit Petronas Twin Tower which is popularly known as the icon of Malaysia. Petronas Twin Tower is the commercial building for the economic and trading activity in Malaysia. The architecture is also inspired from the Islamic Malay and Arabic Kingdom Style.

TM-KL Petronas 1

(Courtesy of Photo by Asep Rudi and Khaira Al Hafi, November 2012)

 

  1. Educational Interactive Discussion in Indonesian Embassy of Kuala Lumpur (Highlighted Part of Titian Muhibah Programme by Firmansyah SW)

The afternoon session was filled by academic visits and interactive discussion in Indonesian Embassy of Kuala Lumpur. The speaker was supposed to be Mr.Surya Sastra Direja (Director of Socio Culture and Communication Functions & Expert Speaker of Indonesian Embassy of Kuala Lumpur), but since the scholars  were little bit late to come in KBRI, Mr.Surya Sastra Direja had to leave as earlier because he had a functions to give public lecture in University of Tun Abdul Razak. But it was not big problem for the scholars since Mrs.Nurul Dewi as the Secretary of Socio Culture and Communication Functions in Indonesian Embassy welcomed all of the scholars in Indonesian Embassy meeting room to discuss about the bodies of Indonesian Embassy.

As known that Marsekal Purn. Herman Prayitno is appointed by the President of Indonesia with the consideration of Indonesian Representative Body (DPR) to be the new ambassador of Indonesian Embassy in Kuala Lumpur (KBRI KL) to replace previous ambassador of Mr.Dai Bachtiar in KBRI KL starting from October 2012 with 3 years working period. There are 5 functions as the internal bodies part of Indonesian Embassy which consists of Functions of Economy (Advocacy and Facilitation), Functions of Consular, Functions of Politic and Defence, Functions of Socio-Culture and Communication and Unit of Indonesian Workers Protection.

Indonesian Embassy of KL fully concerns on the Indonesian people service, protection and advocacy since to the extent of Indonesian people mobility in KL is very high and modest. There are approximately 2 million of Indonesian people who stay, live and work in Malaysia. The approximate amount of Indonesian students who pursue their education in Malaysia is 15,000 students since 2011. The Indonesian Attache has planned for 2013 to establish integrated online platform for Indonesian students to report their existence and status in Malaysian Educational Institution in order to ease the embassy to control and monitor the movement and progress of Indonesian students in Malaysia.

Titian Muhibah scholars and Mrs. Nurul Dewi also discussed about contemporary issue of Indonesian Cultural Claiming by Malaysian Government. Mrs. Dewi said that actually it is only misunderstanding between Indonesian and Malay, and also bias of media to commercialize and provoke Indonesian people with non-factual and non-verified facts in Malaysia in order to break the harmony of Indonesia and Malaysia relations. For instance take the example of Tor-Tor Dance which has been the hot headline of Indonesian media as stated that Malaysian Government want to ratify and endorse it into their Pact of National Heritage as Malaysian Culture. This news is thoroughly biased, provocative and unproven, the real fact that is actually happening in Malaysia is that there are many Mandailing people who live in Malaysia since 1960s till nowadays. Directly, they introduced and performed Tor-Tor in every event to preserve their culture as part of Indonesian culture in Malaysia. Mrs. Dewi said that as the responsibility of Malaysian Government to reward Mandailing people who continuously perform and act their culture for more than 40 years in Malaysia, Malaysian Government had initiatives to put the Mandailing people culture (consisted of musical instruments and Mandailing’s Dancer includes Tor-Tor Dance) as the appreciated and rewarded Indonesian Culture by Mandailing people by putting it to the Act of Protected and Awarded Heritage Culture in Malaysia. In addition putting it into the Act and it is still also stated that this culture originally come from Indonesia, Malaysian Government puts it into the Act of Cultural in Malaysia in order to make a financial budget by Ministry of Malaysian Culture for the preservation of Mandailing’s people culture in Malaysia to be developed and performed better. After hearing all of these facts, all of the scholars are more open minded and broadly must be more careful and selective to face the currents of media about contemporary issues in both countries since there are many similarities between Indonesian and Malaysia in term of language, culture, appearances and culinary. These things are actually the prospective inventory for both countries to strengthen and bond their relations for better ASEAN.

Additionally, the discussion was ended by the polemics of Indonesian Workers in Malaysia. Indonesian Embassy informed the scholars that they are very willing and responsible to monitor, ensure and ratify that Indonesian worker’s right are fulfilled by their bosses and institutions where they work in Malaysia. The things that are struggled by Indonesian Embassy are about the advocacy and legal protection to the workers of Indonesian who get the non-humanistic humiliations and human right violence by their bosses.

 ebs1

(Courtesy of Photo by Asep Rudi and Khaira Al Hafi, November 2012)

  1. Corporate Visits in Air Asia Headquarter, LCCT, Kuala Lumpur

After having interactive discussion and educational facilitation in Indonesia Embassy of Kuala Lumpur, all of the scholars had awesome and gorgeous corporate visits in Air Asia Headquarters in Commercial Building of Low Cost Carrier Transport Airport, Malaysia. All of the scholars were welcomed by Air Asia Management. Air Asia introduced the scholars about operating and non-operating management in Air Asia. They informed the scholars about the milestone and challenges of Air Asia within its 20 years as the best low cost air lines transport in Asia and leading to the world level. Coincidentally, all of the scholars was warmly welcomed by Datok Tony Hernandez as the CEO of Air Asia. In addition, all of the scholars were guided by Air Asia Management to explore further about non-operating offices of Air Asia in LCCT. Finally, Air Asia management introduced the scholars about Air Asia Foundation which is part of corporate social responsibility of Air Asia in term of natural disaster mitigation, cultural heritage preservation, humanity protection and anti-trafficking trading within Asia and the world.

Titian Muhibah Scholars with Datuk Tony Hernandez (CEO of Air Asia)

PS

(Courtesy of Photo by Asep Rudi and Khaira Al Hafi, November 2012)

 

  1. 3.      Third Day of Titian Muhibah Programme 3 (Wednesday, 21st November 2012)
  2. Corporate Visits in CIMB Bank Singapore

CIMB Singapore was another mesmerizing corporate visit for the scholars of Titian Muhibah Programme. CIMB Bank Singapore consist of Retail Banking, Corporate Banking, Investment Banking, CIMB Securities and Commercial Banking CIMB Singapore is considered as qualified full banking policy from one of Singaporean Banking industry. CIMB Singapore expands their franchise movements by the support of Singaporean government to strengthen its monetary policy to foster fast-growing economic development in Singapore. CIMB Singapore has more than 2 branches of its commercial banking around the Singapore. All of the scholars was warmly welcomed by Tan Lyman as the CEO of CIMB Singapore. He is very humble, modest and vibrant banker. He said area of his expertise is in investment banking industry. He shared to the scholars about the effects of technology advancement toward the impact of rapid growth of CIMB Bank in Singapore since Singapore has a high level of smartphone penetration in Asia, well-wired up by fibre optics coverage area and also the infrastructure of bank as the engine to drive the system of banking industry. Instead of possessing high level of technology advancement, the points that shared by Tan Lyman was about the optimization of services marketing in CIMB Singapore. He said the dependability and high availability of services marketing degree in Singapore is very well organized in term of the utilization of internet and online banking service. In addition, reducing the redundancies of risk of banking products by optimizing human intervention and technological role, also by advertising the financial products surround the people in Singapore. Finally Tan Lyman shared his experience to the scholars about how to be the qualified banker in fast-growth banking industry in ASEAN. He said that implementing strategy in banking management must be flexible, frugal and workable (landscape of the prospective industry, geography and psychographic approach of people)

CIMB Bank Singapore with Tan Lyman as its CEO

TIMB-CIMB Bank and Sec Singapore

(Courtesy of Photo by Asep Rudi and Khaira Al Hafi, November 2012)

  1. Visiting Tourism Centre in Universal Studios Singapore and Sentosa Island

The last tour for the third day was visiting the centre of Singaporean amusement park of Universal Studies Singapore which located nearby Sentosa Island. Universal Studios Singapore provides qualified entertainments for all of the scholars in term of adrenaline stimulating, history reminding and people by people coordinating. Universal Studio Singapore consists of 7 main themes of park which are The Lost World, Ancient Egypt, Sci-Fi City, New York, Hollywood, Madagascar and Far-Far Away. Each of themes park have their own uniqueness, specialties and features that can be enjoyed by the visitors of Universal Studios of Singapore. After feeling the awesome sensation in USS, the next tour was set to visit Siloso Beach, Song of The Sea Laser Performance in Sentosa Island, Luge and Sky-ride tour in Sentosa Island and the last one was The Crane Dance Show.

 TM-Nanyang Auditorium

(Courtesy of Photo by Asep Rudi and Khaira Al Hafi, November 2012)

  1. 4.      Fourth Day of Titian Muhibah Programme (Thursday, 22nd November 2012)
    1. A.    Academic Visits in Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Academic Visits in sophisticated campus of Nanyang Technological University of Singapore was the mesmerizing and astounding tour for the scholars of Titian Muhibah Programme 2012. All of the scholars warmly welcomed by the Professor Teguh from School of Mechatronics and Electronic Engineering in NTU and also Beni as the 1st year scholar of Kemdikbud Scholarship in Mechanical Engineering NTU. Prof Teguh said that there are five schools in NTU which consist of  Nanyang Business School, School of Humanities, Art and Social Sciences, School of Engineering, School of Pure Science and School of Medicines (will be opened in 2013). All of the scholars were guided to explore about the academic cultures and atmospheres around NTU  within 2 hours.

TM-NTU SIngapore

(Courtesy of Photo by Asep Rudi and Khaira Al Hafi, November 2012)

 

  1. B.     City Tour in Singapore (Esplanade, Bugis, Fullerton, Merlion and Orchard)

The last tour for Titian Muhibah Programme was ended by the city tour of Singapore. The tour was conducted around the icon of Singapore such as Merlion Statue, Esplanade Art Gallery, Fullerton Hotel, Marina Bay, Orchad Road, Bugis Street and etc.

s1

(Courtesy of Photo by Asep Rudi and Khaira Al Hafi, November 2012)

Special Thanks to:

  1. All of the Titian Muhibah Scholars (BU-CIMB Niaga Scholarship and Kemdikbud Scholarship)
  2. PT.Bank CIMB Niaga (specially to Mrs.Juty, Mrs,Susi and Mr Tupon) and all of the CIMB Niaga Related Stakeholders and People.
  3. Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia (specially to Mr.Rahman, Mr Narendr, Ms.Dian and Mr.Abe).
  4. CIMB Group Malaysia Headquarters (Mr Ezarul Suhaimi, Ms Magdalene, Ms Christie)
  5. CIMB Group Corporate Banking (Mrs Ung Su Ling and Mrs Norzuraida Kamaruddin)
  6. CIMB Singapore (Tan Lyman as CEO, Staffs of CIMB Bank Singapore)
  7. The Complete Banker Fellows of CIMB Niaga Indonesia (Batch 3)
  8. Indonesian Embassy of Kuala Lumpur (specially to Mrs.Nurul Dewi as Secretary of Socio Culture Functions)
  9. Air Asia Sdn Bhd. (Datok Tony Hernandez and Staffs)
  10. Nanyang Technological University of Singapore (specially to Prof. Tegoeh from School of Mechatronics and Electronic Engineering and Beni  from Mechanical Engineering)
  11. Magical Holiday Tour (Mas Ray Waintona as travel organizer, Mr Rahman as tour guide)
  12. All of the unmentioned people related to the success of Titian Muhibah Programme 2012

Created by :

Firmansyah Shidiq Wardhana

Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaya

Student & Peer Coach in Student Empowerment and Research Unit, Univ of Malaya

NTu 3

Signed by Sunday, 25th November 2012

Contact : firmanthemaster@gmail.com / www.firmansyahsw.blogspot.com

Mobile : +60173255199

University of Malaya Delegates Participated in ASEAN Student Forum 2012

University of Malaya Delegates participated in ASEAN Student Forum 2012

Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand on 12th-16th November 2012

Students of University of Malaya again showed their contribution and participation in the international student forum through ASEAN Student Forum (ASF) in 2012 at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand which occurred from 12 to 16 November 2012. They are (1) Firmansyah Shidiq Wardhana and (2) Zakwan Bin Buang who are students of the Faculty of Business and Accountancy, and (3) Najmul Fajri Usman who is a student of Faculty of Science.

(Firman, Fajri and Zakwan as University of Malaya Delegates in ASEAN Student Forum 2012)

Um 2 

(Courtesy of Photos by ASEAN Student Forum Organizer, Chulalongkorn University)

ASEAN Student Forum 2012 is the triennial routine and a series of activities Chulalongkorn University Academic Expo attended by more than 10,000 people in one week. ASF 2012 was attended by 60 selected prospective delegates from 800 applicants of undergraduate students who participated in the selection of applications from all countries within ASEAN region. This year, the theme of the ASF 2012 entitled “Molding The ASEAN Mind”

60 Prospective Delegates of ASEAN Student Forum (ASF) 2012

Firman1

(Courtesy of Photo by ASEAN Student Forum Organiser, Chulalongkorn University)

In ASF 2012, the delegates of each cou ntry discuss current and contemporary issues that are happening in ASEAN and finding solutions toward those existing problems, ASF 2012 began with a discussion forum that lifted the sub theme “ASEAN-Mind Calling and Definition” . In the forum all delegates were given the opportunity to introduce their respective countries in the three aspects of social and cultural, economic, and political and security in order to strengthen the three pillars of ASEAN Community.

ASF 2012 was filled with a variety of interactive discussions with the sub-theme of (a) ASEAN Mind and Integration Calling, (b) Definition of ASEAN Mind, (c) Mind Impacts of ASEAN, (d) ASEAN Pathways to Achieve Mind as ASEAN is One Community and One Fate which is then used as a platform for ASEAN to establish (e) Action Plans and Limitation of Each Country to Mold ASEAN Mind. Where the essence of every forums delegates thought of each country in raising issues and barriers faced by each country and devise solutions together to address the existing problems based on the platform that has been established ASEAN Mind through team-building activities, and a variety of soft skills enhancement and interactive discussion, finally ended by generating delegate consensus of ASF Delegates 2012 in term of Molding ASEAN Mind.

Delegation of University of Malaya said that the ASF 2012 is a prospective way that facilitate ASEAN young leader to strengthen awareness, cooperation and mindset of students in ASEAN through small but meaningful actions to the society. All of 60 delegates from each country were not only given the opportunity to get to know other countries issues within ASEAN, but also a chance to convey fresh idea of ​​multiple perspectives and disciplines to address each of the problems faced by the ASEAN prospective members.

Indonesian Delegates

ID deg

 

ASEAN Student Forum 2012 became one platform for the ASEAN student to achieve a common goal of ASEAN countries in term of strengthening ASEAN Community that comprising on three pillars of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC) and ASEAN Politic and Security Community (APSC) to foster harmony and solid relations for sustainable development in ASEAN.

Some of the speakers who attended the forum which was held for 5 days at Chulalongkorn University, Thailand are as follow :  Prof.Praipol Koomsup, Ph.D (Professor of Economics, Faculty of Economics, Thammasat University), Prof.. Vitit Muntarbhorn (Professor of Law, Faculty of Lawa, Chulalongkorn University), Asst.Prof.Surat Horachaikul (Asstistant Professor of International Relations, Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn University), HE PradaP Pibulsonggram (Former Deputy Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and Assoc. Prof.Suthipad Chirathivat (Executive Director of the ASEAN Educational Centre, Chulalongkorn University).

ASF1

Written by : Firmansyah Shidiq Wardhana

Faculty of Business and Accountancy, UM

On Monday, 26th Nov 2012

 

Special Thanks to :
1. Student Affairs Division of UM- Pn Halimah and Staffs – who became our incredible facilitator to get financial and official assistance to the TNC and Bursary UM
2. Vice Chancellor and Bursary UM – Datok Rohanah and Staffs – who have fully sponsored us to attend Asean Student Forum 2012 in Chulalongkorn Uni.
3. Deputy Dean of Faculty of Business and Accountancy UM. Dr.Normazilah who recommended us to the HEP to get the financial and official assistance from UM

UNEMPLOYMENT DYNAMIC IN MALAYSIA: MACROECONOMICS PAPER

CBEB1108 – MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS II

UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA – FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTANCY

FINAL PROJECT PAPER

PROBLEM 3

AN UNEMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS IN MALAYSIA DURING THE LAST ONE DECADe

unemployment-numbers(Coutesy by google.com)

1.0       PART I (Introduction)

1.1       General Understanding of Unemployment

Unemployment happen when people are able and actively seeking to work but unable to get work. This will eventually resulted in the loss of incomes, production and human capital of a nation. High level of unemployment usually occurs during the economy recession where labour supply exceeds demand from the employers. Long-term unemployment severely damages a person’s job prospects by destroying human capital. The degree of unemployment in a nation indicates the economic health of the country. Unemployment rate is used to measure the underutilization of labour resources because it signifies the percentage of labour force that is unemployed but are willing and actively seeking for work. Unemployment rate provides a precise measurement which was assured by The Bureau of Labour Statistics. However, there are several factors that affect the unemployment rate in a nation such as company downsizing, merger or acquisition, changes in technology and foreign competition, and job outsourcing to other nations.

Unemployment can be divided into three parts which are unemployment of frictional, unemployment of structural, and also circle-cyclical unemployment. Frictional unemployment is arising from normal labour market turnover where people are deciding to move among job of the people, careers options and working location. It is known as fixed and healthy conditions which are resulted from the mismatching between workers and jobs. This can be related to the wages, work time, location, personality and skills. On the other hand, structural unemployment occurred during the changes in technology and foreign competition. This can be explained as the mismatch of skills of unemployed workers and available jobs in the market. Seasonal unemployment can be seen as part of structural unemployment too. This kind of unemployment is linked to certain type of seasonal jobs such as fishing, agriculture or construction work. Cyclical unemployment can be related to the dynamics of economic growth and factors of production in the cycle of business. So, when business cycles are at the peak situation, cyclical unemployment will be considered lower than normal unemployment and when business cycle are at their normal unemployment, cyclical unemployment is higher than normal unemployment. Cyclical unemployment arises when the economic is facing recession because the market labour supply exceeds the demands from the employers due to the widespread decreased in spending and consumption in the economy. Cyclical unemployment can be explained as a person lost his job during economy recession and rehired again when the economy experiences expansion.

1.2       Economic Growth and Labour Market in Asia & Malaysia

In Asia, the economy growth trend and labour market outcomes almost similar. The labour market development is one of the most important components of economic transition. The labour market development occurred in both rural and urban areas. In the early years, the economic growth was focused on agriculture and mining sector which occurring in rural area. Somehow, the intense competition of globalization has caused the transformation from agriculture and mining sector to manufacturing and service sectors. Thus, there are large population of migration from rural area to urban area since 1990s due to job creations and opportunities in the urban area. As the economy is growing, there is an increased competition among nations where greater labour market flexibility and good jobs need to be created.

Malaysia is a rapidly developing country in Asia. Malaysia has successfully moved from the chain of raw materials producer toward more dynamics of multi-sector economic expansion. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rate in Malaysia averaged high in all time from 2000 until 2012. However, the growth of population grows faster than the employment opportunities generated in the market. Therefore, the problem of unemployment occurred. In Malaysia, the unemployment rate has been stable and low over the years. There are two main factors that contributed to the low unemployment rate in Malaysia which are large corporate buffer and the presence of foreign labours.

Malaysia government should also be aware of the consequences of migration on their own labour market too. The migration can helps to reduce unemployment but it can also twist the local labour supply. In Malaysia, there are a significant number of workers have migrated abroad especially high educated and skilled workers. Many of this population has migrated to other countries because there is a high demand and better job opportunities from abroad for particular skills or professions. This large population of highly skilled workers migration will discourage investment and slow down the economic growth of a country. Therefore, government should take this problem into consideration and resolve with a thoughtful way to encourage the local labours to work and contribute to their own country. This helps to avoid job outsourcing to other countries as well.

2.0       PART II (Economic Background of Malaysia)

2.1       Economic Condition in Malaysia

As known that, Malaysia was considered as the most massive producer of rubber and tin sources and also the palm oil productions. During the colonial rule, British introduced palm oil and rubber trees for commercial purposes. British also allowed the migration of Chinese and Indian to work under mines and plantation sectors in Malaysia. In this case, the British colonial system at the early years has eventually divided Malaysian into three groups according to ethnicity. The Malays living in a poor condition because they are more focused in their traditional villages which their incomes are mainly relying on agriculture activities. The Chinese were dominating the Malaysian commerce while Indians focused on the plantations activities. Somehow, educated or Malay nobleman at that time were giving chance to enjoyed a better social life served as civil servants under the British colonial system. The First Malayan Five Year Plan was introduced in the year 1955 just before Malayan independence with the main objectives of reducing poverty and increase per capita income and living standards of the country. However, after the First and Second Malayan Plan, the plans were re-titled and numbered as the establishment of Malaysia which then begins with the First Malaysia Plan.

The Malayan Five Year Plan has successfully caused the economy in Malaysia to grow at a steadily pace. Malaysia is known as a middle income country which transformed itself from producing raw materials into an emerging multi-sector economy. Malaysia is moving forward to achieve the high-income status in the year 2020 by investing in high technology industry, biotechnology, services and Islamic finance. In order to achieve the status, Malaysia should continue to increase the domestic demand and reduce the reliance on imports. Besides, Malaysia should also increase the amount of exports because they acted as the important components to boost the economy growth. The exports of Malaysia include electronics, palm oil, oil and gas, and rubber. However, oil and gas are the main exporter in Malaysia because they generated the highest profit which allocated almost 40% of government funds. In the year of 2012, Malaysia’s economy is growing at a steady pace of 4% to 5%. This shows that Malaysia has performed well regardless the cause of international uncertainties by the euro-zone crisis, US debt crunch and a slowdown in China. The domestic demand and consumption are growing at 7% whereas the investment is growing at 10%. The domestic demand, consumption and investment act as the main drivers of an economic growth.

There are few reasons for well performance of Malaysia economy regardless the international uncertainties such as placing higher price for certain goods that it produced like crude oil, low inflation and well capitalized and stable banking system. These have helped to increase the flow of capital to the country as investors are looking towards emerging markets and away from troubled economies such as European Union. It eventually helps in sustaining the growth of the Malaysia economy too. In addition, the domestic oriented industries and on-going implementation of projects will also be supported by the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP). This has allowed Malaysia to achieve the developed nation status by 2020 with stronger value-added industries and services, higher incomes and less reliance on inconstant goods earnings. For example, ETP helps to support domestic demand and boost up the consumer confidence which including providing benefits for the poor, tax reduction and bonuses for public sector workers.

Somehow, in the globalised economy, Malaysia will not be isolated from the effects of international financial crisis. For example, the global recession of 2009 which caused by the financial crisis of 2007 to 2008 has affected the entire world economy. Moreover, the European sovereign debt crisis, along with slowing growth in United States and China continues block the world economic growth. The decreasing number of exports will eventually decrease the GDP of a country. Slow economic growth is the main contributor to the unemployment problem because the job opportunities available in the market could not kept pace with the population growth.

2.2       INTRODUCTION TO Unemployment Issue in Malaysia

Long term unemployment creates a massive cost for an individual and economy as a whole. This may results in negative results of income, negative unexpected multiplier effects, oppression of national output, fiscal and monetary costs and merely social cost. The unemployed experiences a decline in the living standards as they have less purchasing power and may involves to debt problems which leads to social problems such as crimes. The unemployment also involves a loss of potential national output as the potential GDP exceeds real GDP; the output gap will be negative due to an increased in spare capacity. High level of unemployment will affect the fiscal costs because government experienced a loss in tax revenue and higher spending on welfare for those who unemployed and this may cause budget deficit in the particular country. Negative multiplier effects happened due to the loss of massive number of jobs during a downturn in the business which affected the other parties such as suppliers or retailers.

 

3.0       PART III (UNEMPLOYMENT ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN MALAYSIA)

3.1       Unemployment Rate Pattern in Malaysia

Unemployment in Malaysia is the emerging and damaging issue which people who are demanding the about the expected jobs but could not find them. The meaning of term unemployment rate means that the percentage of people within labour force who are unemployed divided by the total amount of labour force.

Figure III.II B Malaysia Unemployment Rate during last two decades (85-010)

Courtesy of Data: International Monetary Fund, WMO 2010

Malaysia unemployment can be considered as starkly and positively fluctuating which different far from the worrying trend of unemployment in European countries and United States. Moreover, the unemployment has been relatively stable after the financial crisis. The figure above shows that the Malaysia unemployment rate is relatively stable and fluctuates among the range of 3.0 % to 4.0 % annually within last one decade from 1998 to 2012.

As we know from the figure that the unemployment rate after 1998 or period of Asian Financial Crisis did not influence the fluctuations of Malaysia unemployment rate substantially.   Based on the data from International Monetary Fund about and Department of Statistics Malaysia, the unemployment rate average of Malaysia within last one decade is laid down in the point of 3.3 %. With the highest ratio of unemployment rate in 2009 which almost reached 3.7 %. And the lowest ratio of unemployed ratio was laid down in the point of nearby 3.0 % in 2007.

The dynamics of unemployment rate in Malaysia can be considered as stable and does not fluctuate too extreme and too significant whether in the high or low point. There are certain factors that will be elabourated and discussed below about why Malaysia unemployment rate is relatively stable and starkly during last one decade.

3.2       Factors that Fluctuates Unemployment Rate in Malaysia

3.2.1    Dynamics of Population Amount

The increase of Malaysian populations within last one decade causes the increased amount of Malaysian labour force. However, the increase of labour force is conversely not accompanied with the availability of job opportunities since the human works nowadays are changed by the automated and digitalized machines works, especially in manufacturing industry. Moreover, it causes the local labour forces to increase gradually but they cannot be distributed to the job-related area since the job availability rate remains constant or even declines because of the technological advancement in certain area of industry. This essential reason will affect to the significant increase of unemployed people in Malaysia, especially toward the unemployed graduates. But in certain consecutive year, the unemployment rates in Malaysia can be considered as fluctuating stably between 3 to 4 % annually. The stability of Malaysian unemployment rate within last one decade are relatively stable and in the expected rate because the growth of total population in Malaysia does not increase exponentially. It means that the government and society have a good coordination to control the birth rate, population booms and density in Malaysia. Until nowadays (between 2010-2011) the population sum of Malaysia is around 27.5 million with 3.4 % of unemployment rate.

Figure III.II A Malaysian Population 1980,1991, 2000 and 2010

Source : Department of Statistics Malaysia, Summary 1998-2010

3.2.2        Dynamics of Foreign Workers in Malaysia

3.2.2.1 Foreign Workers as Competitors for Local Workers.

The foreign immigrants in Malaysia are attracted by the low unemployment rates and excess demand of labour force in Malaysia. As well particularly those immigrants come from Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Yemen, Philippines and others. Malaysia is facing the reality that the increasing numbers of foreign workers give some drawbacks toward the competition of labour market in Malaysia. Instead of stimulating competition between the foreign workers and locals to get a job, the presence of foreign workers has impacted to the stress of public amenities in Malaysia such as provision of health services, public and others.

In addition, (Mohammad Arif, 2009) The trend of foreign workers increase in Malaysia is considered as stimulator for the local people to transform them from labour intensive industries orientation toward hybrid modelled skilled industries, like bank and finance sectors, computers and technological sectors, research and development areas and public instrument and infrastructure provision services. Back to the past that rising wages in manufacturing in the early 1990s prompted employers to consider investing high-tech labour saving production methods, only abandon to their plans when the government allowed them to hire cheaper foreign workers. Instead of this past facts and evidences, Malaysia has to expand and enhance degree of local labour skill empowerment and maximisation instead of depending on the presence foreign labour forces to keep the unemployment rate patterns become stable even lower within the relevant and expected range.

                        3.2.2.2 Foreign Workers as A Keeper of Stable Unemployment Rate

Figure III.II C The Presence of Foreign Workers in Malaysia (2001-2007)

Source: Department of Immigration Malaysia

As know that dependency of foreign labour of Malaysia has helped the cases of unemployment during times of Asian Crisis, The number of foreign workers in Malaysia has arisen up from an 850,000 people in 2001 to 1,470,000 people in 2004 and calculated to be 2,045,000 in 2007 and nowadays it reaches to be 2, 7 million foreign workers. It is considered that 1,000,000 of foreign workers in manufacturing sector. This is about two-thirds of the manufacturing sector 1.4 million work-forces in Malaysia. The high correlation and presence of foreign labours has often been related as the reason of Malaysia’s low-wage architecture within last one decade. However, the existence of foreign labour in Malaysia has successfully kept up and managed the unemployment rate become stable-and starkly even more lower within last one decade in the expected range of 3 % to 4 % annually.

3.2.2.3 Conclusion  of Foreign Workers Presence

In conclusion, the presence of more than 2,7 million workers in Malaysia is another pertinent issue. In times of high economy growth, it is ratified that foreign workers have striven for to the rise of economic growth of the country by omitting and smoothening up labour shortages in certain areas of works in Malaysia. Moreover, foreign workers play complimentary roles to domestic labour in covering up and fulfilling the demand for labour market in Malaysia. Directly it helps manage the unemployment rate declines and fluctuates stably within the range of 2.9 to 3.6 % per year within last one decade.

Figure III.II D The Composition of Malaysia Population 2010

Source: Department of Statistics, Malaysia

Conversely during the economic slowdown, however foreign workers tend to be viewed as competitors. During the financial crisis, of the total retrenched workers, the majority were foreign workers. It has also been argued that migrant workers displaced Malaysian. The presence of foreign workers has also put oppression on public provisional areas of works and services, such as the general public services, kind-health and educational infrastructures in Malaysia as a whole.

Finally, regardless of the pitfalls of foreign workers presence in Malaysia, it has been proven that the benefits of foreign workers labour force in Malaysia has successfully kept up the unemployment rate of Malaysia become stable and low. Instead of it, the foreign workers presence has stimulated the local workers to enhance their capability in term human capital to be more skilled workers in the labour market to grow the Malaysian economy rapidly towards the Malaysian Vision 2020.

3.2.3    DYNAMICS OF Unemployed Graduates as A Worrying Trend.

Labour Force Survey of conducts annual survey which proves that the challenge of increment in Malaysian Unemployment rate is caused by the significant increase of unemployed graduates in Malaysia. A local newspaper report (New Strait Times Malaysia, 2005) that in 2005 there were 60 thousands unemployed graduates in Malaysia.  The report drew much attention because it brought into question to the quality of university graduates. Some even went as far as questioning the relevance of university curriculum in the face of changing work environment that emphasizes new skills, creativity, computer literacy and inter-personal communication skills.

It is necessary to highlight that the issue of graduate unemployment is nothing new in Malaysia. What is new and worrying, however, is the persistent nature of the unemployed graduate problem within last one decade in Malaysia. Also, graduate unemployment is of serious concern because of its long term political and social implications. It is commonly argued that the large number of unemployed graduates serve as breeding ground for discontent and political unrest. Furthermore, graduate unemployment is a waste of productive resources. It brings negative results and contribution to the National Economy of Malaysia. As the unemployed graduates of Malaysia increase gradually, it weakens the rate of human capital and labour force from skilled workers in Malaysia.

As a sample of data set, The Labour Force Survey in Statistics Department in Malaysia and study on Strategies to Reduce Unemployment among Graduates (IDS, 2005) reveal the following pattern of Malaysian unemployed graduates within 1998-2005 as follows:

  1. Unemployment among graduates are concentrated in the 20-29 years old.
  2. The majority of unemployed graduates are Malay;
  3. The majority of unemployed graduates are in the urban areas;
  4. Higher percentage of female graduates are unemployed as compared to males;
  5. 92.6 % are from local public institutions of higher learning and 5.3 % are from local private institutions of higher learning

3.2.4    Inflations Rates to Unemployment Rates Fluctuations

The inflation rate also contributes to the fluctuations of unemployment rate in Malaysia. Amir Amri (2007) said that the theory of populous economist from Wellington who known as A.W Phillips appeared because at the time in 1929, there was an economic depression in United States that impacted to the raising of unemployment rate. Based on the macroeconomic theory of Phillips stipulates that there is bonded relationship between inflation rate and unemployment rate. From the observations, it is known that if the inflation rate is high, the level of unemployment is low. It indicates the reciprocal linkage between inflation unemployment rate of people.

Figure III.II B Malaysia Inflation Rate during last two decades (1980-2010)

Courtesy of Data: International Monetary Fund, WMO 2010

A.W Phillips described both relationship based on the assumption that inflation is the reflection of a significant rise in aggregate demand in the general market. With the rise of aggregate demand based on the demand theory, it will increase the price level of productions. Moreover, because of the increase of price level that leads the condition to reach inflation, the manufacturers have to increase their production capacities by adding the labours as known that because labours are considered as main input of productions to increase the productions output As a result of the increase of quantity of labour demanded and the increase of price level that leads to the inflation, it can be understood automatically that the unemployment rate becomes lower and decreases continually. At least but not least, Phillips curve also conveys about the idea of trade-off between unemployment and inflation. If the market wants to get low unemployment rate, market has to increase their inflation but if they want the stable and low inflation rate, the market and government have to adjust increasing the inflation rate within certain periods.

As we know that the inflation rate of Malaysia is dynamic in term of fluctuations of the inflation rate within last one decade. The amount of inflation rates within last one decade were laid down within the scale of 1 to 5 % that can be classified into small scale or soft inflation that actually do not substantially affect the significant fluctuations of unemployment rate in Malaysia. As we know that even the inflation rate raised up into 5 % in 2008, but the unemployment rate was still laid down in the range of 3 to 4 %. Since the inflation level is below 10 %, the inflation is classified as soft inflation that only influence the fluctuations of unemployment rate marginally within period of time.

3.3 UNEMPLOYMENT AS DAMAGING ISSUE IN MALAYSIA ECONOMIC

Unemployment is considered as the damaging issue for the national economy and development in term of GNP, income per capita and productions factors (Jomo & Ishak, 2003) as follows:

  1. Unemployment means that labour force is not utilized efficiently and other factors of production plants and the land factors such as agricultural land are wasted uselessly. This situation would reduce real GNP achieved and this condition will reduce potential GNP < real GNP.
  2. Unemployment wastes the aggregate production factors. It affects that firms are not efficient to manage the productions. The negatives effect toward the national economy is that the budgeted production of firm will not be able to reach efficiently.
  3. As the result of wasting aggregate production factors of the firms, unemployment will turn down and lower the current production of the firms, this situation will led to the impediment of economic growth in the future.
  4. Unemployment is resulted to the subtraction of real GNP and it subtracts to the national income. If the amount of Malaysian populations increase annually but the unemployment remains constant even more increasing, the income per capital will go down subsequently.
  5. Unemployment contributes to the addition of poverty rate to the state. The increase of unemployment rate will prove that the current efforts from government to tackle down unemployment must be improved as well as possible.

Furthermore, unemployment is considered as damaging issue to the national economy because high unemployment may reduce the aggregate income and give the negative impact on the government. It will slow down the economic development progress of Malaysia. The government of Malaysia should provide various solutions, policies and infrastructures to address the problem of unemployment and stimulate the national economy as well as reduce the poverty gap between Malaysian citizens.

In addition, not only considered as damaging issue to the national economy but also considered as damaging issue toward the Malaysian society in term of social perspective. Unemployment causes the unemployed people not to have income and wages for certain period of time. This situation leads them to find incapability to fulfil their daily needs and personal consumptions.  Financial incapability will lead unemployed people to act beyond the boundaries and impose them to do crime such as stealing and robbing. This current situation increases the crimes rate of country and affects to social security.

3.4       CHALLENGES OF FACING UNEMPLOYMENT IN MALAYSIA

The challenges of Malaysia Government and Society to reduce the degree of unemployment nowadays are lied on two main things which are as follows (i) the bombastic and massive amount presence of foreigners to study, work and live in Malaysia since they believe that Malaysia is proper and safe country to live, gain wealth and prosperity. As known that nowadays the amount of foreign population almost reach 2,7 million until the latest of 2012 as known 10 % population composition of Malaysia populations as a whole. The presence of foreign labours and immigrants in Malaysia will be the stimulator and also the challenges for local people to strive for the workforce in the long term and short term period

The second challenge of facing unemployment in Malaysia is (ii) the increasing trends of local unemployed graduates who are lack of communication skills, English and language skills and also soft-skills enhancement. There are many multinational companies in Malaysia as the result of free direct investment from foreign and joint-venture country that recruit people not based on their academic capacity. But nowadays the company and corporations tend to hire people who have astounding interpersonal and emotional intelligence that accompanied with strong willingness to foster and sustain the innovative way to make company become not only optimizing the profit but also being captivated and grabbed to the heart of society. It means that they need the people who have often exposure of communicating effectively with people to negotiate and solve the existing case within or inter company.

4.0       PART IV MACROECONS POLICIES TO COMBAT UNEMPLOYMENT

4.1       FISCAL AND MONETARY POLICIES BY MALAYSIAN GOVERMENTS

There are two macroeconomic policies used by government to combat unemployment in Malaysia which known as fiscal policy and monetary policy.

Fiscal policy generally refers to the empirical role of the government to achieve the macroeconomic goals such as stability of economic growth, full employment, increasing amount of aggregate demand and stability of price level in the market. There are two main instruments of fiscal policy which are adjusting the amount of taxation uses and government expenditure to regulate the aggregate level of economic activity. This policy is based on Keynesian economic fiscal policy should be used to stabilize the level of output and unemployment. Specifically, Keynes believed the government should cut the taxes and raise their government expenditures which called expansionary fiscal policy or deficit budget automatic fiscal policy (if it is from the perspective of business cycle) to overcome the problem of economic recession. The Malaysian government influences the economy by adjusting the amount of taxes, transfer payments and purchasing in transfer policy. It is known that when the tax is cut, it will directly arise the amount of disposable income. When the income increases, directly it will increase the amount of aggregate demand that will influence to increase in real GDP. If the firms produce more goods and services because of the increase of aggregate demand in the market, there will be increase in aggregate demand of workers to be employed to work for producing more goods and services needed by the market and therefore lower the demand-deficient unemployment. Furthermore, the increase of aggregate demand of productions and labours will result to the powerful economic growth of Malaysia and fewer firms in Malaysia will be become bankrupt since all of the labour and production resources are utilized well by discretionary-expansive fiscal policy.

Monetary policy is an economic policy which attempts to relieve broad objects of policy – stability of employment and prices, economic growth and balance of payment through control of monetary system, economic open market operation, credit multiplier, operating monetary magnitudes control such as supply of money, level and structure of interest rates and other conditions affecting the availability of credit by Bank Negara Malaysia. Monetarists agree that quantity  of money supplied affects the overall price level, interest rate, exchange rate, unemployment rate and level of output in the market. The kind of monetary policy depends on the Malaysia situation. There are tight monetary policy which restrain the economy and also easy monetary policy which aggressively expand money supply and lower interest rate and also increase the investment.

5.0       PART V (ENHANCING LABOUR MARKET IN MALAYSIA)

5.1       OUTLOOK OF MALAYSIAN LABOUR MARKET WITHIN 2012-2020

The labour market aspect is very important for the economy of a country. Without labour market, the business cannot run smoothly and the growth economy cannot move forwards in the future. Then, the nominal market is a searching of employers finds a worker, workers searching for work and where the wages are determined. Other than that, labour market is made up from an interacting labour markets for diverse skills, qualifications, and locations. Moreover, labour supply offers two important benefits. First, because of markets imperfections, it may be possible to increase production through policies to encourage better use of available labour and the adoption of technology. Second, even if total output is not rise, increased employment of poor people can be an effective and relatively low cost way to increase their share of total income, and thus diminish poverty.

Despite of that, for the outlook for Malaysian labour market 2012, it can be seen that the labour market conditions are expected to soften in 2012, along with the slower economic activity. Other factor that affects labour market is technology. Technology gives the effect towards labour market in the future. The changes in technology will change the skill needed to perform jobs. When technology rises, the labour market will drop. So, many people loss job because of new technology arise and unemployment will increase. Next, recession give negative impact to the labour market of the country. This is because when recession happens, the demand of labour decreases because the employer wants to cut cost but unfortunately the supply of labour unchanged. This thing happen because employer that run the business want to cope with the cost of production and to get as much profit as possible in this crucial time.

Therefore, because of these factors, labour market condition cannot be maintained to be good until 2020. There is an upside down factor that affect the smoothness of the movement that happen in the labour market. The outlook for Malaysia market in 2012 is softening along with the slow growth of economy. This situation will continue to be worst if recession happens but will getting back to normal if the recovery phase can be done accordingly with proper plan. So, what can be concluded here is in 2020, the economic growth can grow faster only if program that country plan to meet the vision 2020 is implied accordingly.

5.2 Malaysian Economics Transformation Program 2020 (METP Vision 2020) as OUTLOOK OF MALAYSIAN MARKET IN THE NEXT 10 YEARS

            Malaysian Economic Transformation Programme (METP) is a comprehensive effort to make Malaysia turn into a develop country when reach 2020.  This is other initiative for Malaysia to have high earnings in economy sector by the year of 2020. Other than that, this effort has the same line with the National Economic Model (NEM). Furthermore, the aim of this program is to move and strive for the Malaysian economy to become one with high GDP, per-capita and well distributed income and astounding quality growth in 2020. Besides that, METP wants to enhance and encourage Malaysia to advanced-nation status with completeness and sustainability by eight Initiatives of Strategic Reforms. The eight strategic reform of initiative are known as re-fresh and energise the Malaysian private sector, creating a competitive atmosphere of national economy, enhancing the power of public sector, making the transparencies of market and direct marketing affirmative action. Enhancing and empowering better quality of labour forces and deducting the presence and depending linkage on foreign labour. And lastly is enhancing sustainability of local growth and local labours, establishing the knowledge fundamentals of facilities and sustaining the growth resources.

Other than that, because of effort of this program, the economy of this country can turn much better because there is a prediction and analysis that had been made for the future. Transformation is very good for the economy of the country to cope with the changing era and time because it moving with the flow of technology and such. Because of Malaysia is currently pursuing to be a developed country, this program is very good to implied to give the benefit to the country as well as the nation. Moreover, all the negative impact on the country also can be reduced by using the plan of that program.

Despite of that, benefits realizing this program is the unemployment can be reduced. This is because when the economy of the country growing faster, it open more opportunity in the labour market. In this situation, when business expand, employer need more worker and people that is unemployed will have a greater chance to get a job and eventually the production of the business will increase and indirectly give a good impact to the economy. Because of this, it also can strengthen Malaysia in global market and Trading. When this happen, Malaysia will become a develop country in 2020 with no doubt.

6.0       SUMMARY

            In conclusion, there are four main points that are considered as the main parts in this project paper that led to be elaborated in each subsections of the part above. Those four important part are as follows (i) unemployment rate fluctuations pattern in Malaysia during last one decade (ii) the various factors which fluctuates unemployment rate in Malaysia during last one decade (iii) the outlook of Malaysian job market during next 10 years and the development of Malaysian Economics Transformation Programme (METP) (iv) how damaging is the issue of unemployment in national economy of Malaysia.

The first concern is about fluctuations of unemployment rate in Malaysia within last one decade, the paper has shown that the fluctuations of Malaysia unemployment rate can be considered as stable and starkly which laid down within the relevant range of 3 to 4 % from 1998 to 2012. The stable and positively stark fluctuations of Malaysian unemployment are influenced by the second main points which known as some factors such as the presences of foreign workers, dynamics of population amount, the increase and trends of unemployed graduates and the dynamics of inflation-economic growth trend in Malaysia.  Moreover, one of the factors that is the presence of foreign labours are successfully keeping the unemployment rate become stable since they are fulfilling the excess labour demand of Malaysia and alleviating the labour shortages in certain sectors of work.

In addition, the third main point is about the outlook of Malaysian job Market in the next ten years are very diverse, competitive and prosecuting the people to be the part of creative and innovative economic grower to reach the objectives of Malaysia Economic Transformation programme. Furthermore, the outlook of Malaysia job market is not only to develop the country to be new developed country but also how to be astounding to grow the concept of sustainable development in Malaysian economic sector.

Besides that, the fourth essential point discusses about the importance of unemployment as damaging issue in national economy of Malaysia. As known that unemployment is considered as damaging issue to the national economy because high unemployment may reduce the aggregate income and give the negative impact on the government. It will slow down the economic development progress of Malaysia. The government of Malaysia should provide various solutions, policies and infrastructures to address the problem of unemployment and stimulate the national economy as well as reduce the poverty gap between Malaysian citizens.

Finally, analysis of the four main parts about dynamics of unemployment in Malaysia are provided with the real facts, elaborations of proof, analysis of the in-depth problems preceded by the real examples and analogies that ease people to understand easily.

7.0       REFERENCES (arranged in alphabetical orders)

Plagiarism Detection : 2% by Turnitin.com

  1. Abd Rahim Abd Rashid, S. H. (2005). Career Development and Unemployment Problems in Malaysia :Crisis of education and training. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan publications and didtributors sdn bhd.
  2. Alghofari, F. (2011). Analisis Tingkat Pengangguran di Indonesia 1987-2007. Final Thesis of Bachelor of Economics, University of Diponegoro, Semarang.
    1. Allen, S. (1986). The Experience of unemployment. Macmillan in association with British Sociological Association.
    2. Baharin, Norhayati, Y.Ishak, & R, I. (2012). Factors Influencing Unemployment in Malaysia. Paper presented at the Prosiding Perkembangan Ekonomi Kebangsaan Malaysia ke VII, Kuala Lumpur
      1. Baharumshah, A. Z., & Rashid, S. (1999). Exports, Imports and Economic Growth in Malaysia: Empirical Evidence Based on Multivariate Time Series.Asian Economic Journal13(4), 389-406
      2. Berma, M. (2009). Labour markets and employment in Asia : emerging issues and challenges.
      3. Clark, K. B., Summers, L. H., Holt, C. C., Hall, R. E., Baily, M. N., & Clark, K. B. (1979). Labour market dynamics and unemployment: a reconsideration.Brookings Papers on Economic Activity1979(1), 13-72.
      4. Drabble, J. H. (2000). An economic history of Malaysia, c. 1800-1990: The transition to modern economic growth (p. 132). Basingstoke: Macmillan.
      5. Harris, J. R., & Todaro, M. P. (1970). Migration, unemployment and development: a two-sector analysis. The American Economic Review, 126-142.
      6. Hon, T. C. (2007). Immigration Pattern of Skilled Workers in Malaysia: A Sectoral Analysis. Malaysian Journal of Economic Studies, 44(1), 123-120
      7. Mamat, M. I. (2011). Masalah Pengangguran di Malaysia : Kesan Terhadap Negara dan Cara Mengatasinya. Coursework Exercise. School of Social Sciences. Universiti Sains Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur
      8. Nasir, M. N. M., Hwa, K. M., & Mohammad, H. (2009). An Initial Study on the Forecast Model for Unemployment Rate. Journal of Asian Business and Management Studies, 20(4), 17
      9. Saad, N. M., Hasan, S., & Yusoff, W. S. W. (2004). Macroeconomic Applications in South East Asian Countries : Conventional and Islamic Perspectives. Kuala Lumpur: Research Center of International Islamic University Malaysia.
      10. Sharma, A., & P.Mamgain, R. (2009). Challenges of Unemployment in Malaysia Labour Markets and Unemployment in Asia : Emerging Issue and Challenges (pp. 127-143). India: Danish Books.
      11. The Edge Malaysia (October, 2009) Online Database. Foreign Labour Keeps Malaysia Unemployment Lower. Retrieved from http://www.theedgemalaysia.com/sports/151220-foreign-labour-keeps-malaysian-unemployment-low.ht

       

    PREPARED BY

     (GROUP 3-TUTORIAL SLOTS 04-05 PM)

    1. 1.     FIRMANSYAH SHIDIQ WARDHANA                (CEB110723)
    2. 2.     KHAIRUL AZRI AZIZAN                                     (CEA110034)
    3. 3.     MOHD RUSHDAN BIN MOHD RAMLI              (CEA110131)
    4. 4.     SHERENE TAN HSU HSIEN                                (CEB110067)

     

     LECTURER:

    DR.NURUL SHAHNAZ BIN AHMAD MAHDZAN

    SEMESTER I – SESSION 2012-2013

get writer contact through firmanthemaster@gmail.com or http://www.firmansyahsw.blogspot.com

SERU UPDATE (TAFAKUR RAMADHAN : A MONTH OF NUZULUL ALQURAN)

Tafakur Ramadhan : Obligation of Fasting for A Month of Nuzulul AlQuran

SERU BLOG WEEKLY JOURNAL UPDATE – SPECIAL RAMADHAN EDITION
WEEK 9 (August 2012)
Project by SERU, University of Malaya 2012
 
Bismillahirahmanirrahim
I am so amazed when I read the Khazanah Ramadhan article which are written by Agus Mustofa (Indonesian populous writer of Tasawuf Modern) in the National Newspaper of Jawa Pos, Monday 6th August Edition. The article entitles FASTING TO REACH THE NUZULUL ALQURAN.  This article enlightens us about the knowledge of Ramadhan Fasting. Below I highlight about the core of this article content.
Mostly, when we are asked by the people and muslimin-muslimah. Why must we fasting in the ramadhan month ? or in the letter luck question WHAT IS THE CAUSE THAT WE HAVE TO DO FASTING. Mostly , the answer that we give will be possibly cited in Al Baqarah 183 about Fasting in Ramadhan.
(O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous )
Well, the verse above is right that we have to fast in order to be righteous. It means that the verse above shows the effect of fasting. So , we are aware that when people ask us about the cause of fasting , we still don’t give proper answer about the verse cited because the verse above is about the effect of fasting (to be righteous).
Oh, so what is the proper answer of the question above ? After referring to the AlQuran as our guidance, mostly we are able to refer to the Al Hadith of Rasulullah SAW about Fasting ( in which Shuumu tashihuu : Fasting, then in order to be healthy). Well, it is right that this hadith conveys about the effect of fasting that is in order to behealthy.
So, again and again both of the TWO ANSWER above that are Righteousness and Health are the Effect of Fasting in Ramadhan.  These are become clear because the verse both using conjunction “in order to”  or “may become” that emphasize the effect about thing.
What is the proper answer about the CAUSE of fasting in Ramadhan month ?

The answer about the cause of fasting is clearly shown in Al Baqarah verse 185 as follows :
The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful.
It is clearly shown that there is imperative word (let)  in this verse become the CAUSE why we have to fast for the Ramadhan month. The answer for us as Muslim that we have to fast is because in Ramadhan Month, the Al-Quran is Revealed (Nuzulul AlQuran). Not because of the other reason or causes.
So, it is clear when the Muslimin Muslimah are fasting on Ramadhan month, we have to be more clever and diligent to tadabbur and understand more about AlQuran Al Kareem that is revealed in Ramadhan month itself.
Reading or citing the AlQuran is not only the formality to read it until khatam – but we have to get the guide from AlQuran. So we have to understand the content of AlQuran tarjamah. Its due to the Al Baqarah verse 185 conveys that
AlQuran which is revealed on Ramadhan to be the guidance of Ummah eternally. Furthermore, we are as Muslim are asked to get the Al Furqon that means criterion or differentiator of the good and the bad (haq and batil).
An implicit utterances  that people who have gotten the guidance must be “different in the good way to be the agent of change and implement the value of AlQuran in daily life”. The Muslim people ought not to be follower but to be life trendsetter of ummah who can be the pioneer of life, leader of ummah and enlightening ummah. Amin Allahuma Amin
Alhamdulillahirabbilalamin, We are given countless mercy by Allah SWT to meet and pursue noble months of Ramadhan 1433 H. Then, we are able to reach the 17th day of Ramadhan in which this day is the day of Nuzulul Al-Quran . Let’s muhasabbah to ourself to be better and useful ummah of Muslim dunia wal akhirah
– – – – – –
Wallahu a’lam bishawab
 
 Firmansyah Shidiq Wardhana
SERU Members 2012
University of Malaya
 
Reference : 
Jawa Pos National Newspaper, Khazanah Ramadhan Pages 2, Edition : Monday, 6 August 2012. An article by Agus Mustofa entitles “Berpuasalah untuk Songsong Turunnya AlQuran)
            

Keistimewaan Ilmu Fiqih

Keistimewaan Fiqih (dikutip dan diambil dari HassanAlBanna.com

Sesungguhnya ilmu fiqih adalah ilmu yang cukup istimewa, unik dan punya banyak kelebihan. Dan tidak seperti yang selama ini sering dituduhkan oleh musuh-musuh Islam, dimana niat dan tujuan mereka sejak awal memang tidak baik.

A. Bersumber Dari Wahyu

1. Tuduhan Para orientalis

Para orientalis dan sejarawan Barat yang anti Islam seringkali menghujamkan tuduhan keji kepada fiqih dan para ulama fiqih. Mereka menuduh bahwa ilmu fiqih tidak lebih sekedar hasil karya para ulama, yang ditulis jauh sepeninggal Rasulullah Shalallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam dan para khulafa’ rasyidah.

Lebih jauh mereka bahkan sampai hati mencemooh para ulama itu sebagai para penjilat penguasa, yang dibayar dengan harga yang pantas untuk meligitimasi kezaliman dan keangkara-murkaan para penindas rakyat.

Mereka sering menghubungkan kelahiran ilmu fiqih dengan masa kehidupan empat imam mazhab, yaitu Abu Hanifah (70-150 H), Al Imam Malik (93-179 H), Asy Syafi’i (150-202 H) dan Al Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (164 – 241 H).

Tuduhan seperti ini -sayangnya- disenangi oleh banyak mahasiswa Muslim yang mendapat beasiswa untuk belajar di negeri para orientalis itu berteori. Dan tanpa punya rasa kritis dan cemburu sedikit pun, para mahasiwa yang lugu itu pun menjadi pemuja dan pembela pemikiran para orientalis, bahkan membanggakan diri sebagai murid dan kader mereka.

Padahal ilmu fiqih bukan karangan para ulama, juga bukan baru muncul di masa yang jauh dari Rasulullah Shalallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam hidup. Dan ilmu fiqih tidak punya latar belakang kisah penjilatan kepada para penguasa. Keempat imam mazhab itu, tidak ada satu pun yang menjadi mufti suatu kerajaan, atau menjadi penasehat khalifah tertentu. Ilmu fiqih adalah ilmu yang sudah ada di masa Rasulullah Shalallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam masih hidup.

Pada dasarnya ilmu fiqih lahir, tumbuh dan berkembang bersama dengan perjalanan dakwah Rasulullah Shalallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam dan para shahabat. Karena itu kita mengenal istilah fiqih para shahabat, misalnya Fiqih Abu Bakar, Fiqih Umar, Fiqih Ustman dan juga Fiqih Ali. Sebab mereka ternyata memang ahli fiqih, yang juga sekaligus menjadi pengganti Rasulullah Shalallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam dalam memimpin umat.

Sumber ilmu fiqih juga bukan otak dan logika manusia belaka. Tetapi sumber ilmu fiqih murni Al Quran dan As Sunnah yang diterima secara muktabar, dan kemudian dipahami dengan manhaj yang telah dibakukan secara ilmiyah dan diterima oleh seluruh umat Islam.

2. Fiqih vs Hukum Buat Manusia

Berbeda dengan undang-undang buatan manusia, atau yang sering disebut sebagai al ahkam al wadh’iyah (الأحكام الوضعیة), yang bersumber dari akal dan nalar manusia, fiqih bersumber dari wahyu Allah, yaitu Al Quran dan Sunnah.

Setiap ahli fiqih atau mujtahid pasti memiliki kemampuan mengambil hukum dari sumber fiqih yang ada, dan mereka semua terikat dengan Al Quran dan sunnah. Tidak satu pun dari mereka yang hanya sekedar menuruti logika belaka dan atau sekedar berlandaskan kepada filsafat. Kesimpulan hukum yang dihasilkan merupakan makna turunan secara langsung atau sesuai dengan ruh syariat, atau tujuan umum dari syariat Islam.

Karena sumber fiqih adalah wahyu Allah, maka ia sangat sesuai dengan tuntutan manusia dan kebutuhan manusia secara keseluruhan. Sebab Allah adalah Pencipta manusia yang mengetahui seluk-beluk manusia itu sendiri, baik yang lahir atau yang batin. Allah menciptakan syariat yang lengkap mengatur seluruh bidang kehidupan manusia. Allah berfirman:

“Apakah Allah Yang menciptakan itu tidak mengetahui; dan Dia Maha Halus lagi Maha Mengetahui?” (Al Mulk: 14)

“Diharamkan bagimu bangkai, darah, daging babi, yang disembelih atas nama selain Allah, yang tercekik, yang terpukul, yang jatuh, yang ditanduk, dan diterkam binatang buas, kecuali yang sempat kamu menyembelihnya, dan yang disembelih untuk berhala. Dan mengundi nasib dengan anak panah , adalah kefasikan. Pada hari ini orang-orang kafir telah putus asa untuk agamamu, sebab itu janganlah kamu takut kepada mereka dan takutlah kepada-Ku. Pada hari ini telah Kusempurnakan untuk kamu agamamu, dan telah Ku-cukupkan kepadamu ni’mat-Ku, dan telah Ku-ridhai Islam itu jadi agama bagimu. Maka barang siapa terpaksa karena kelaparan tanpa sengaja berbuat dosa, sesungguhnya Allah Maha Pengampun lagi Maha Penyayang.” (QS Al Maidah: 3)

Jika dibandingkan dengan undang-undang dan hukum yang dibuat manusia, perbedaan antara keduanya sangat jauh, seperti bedanya antara Pencipta jagad raya, Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, dengan makluknya yang kecil.

Hukum yang dibuat manusia banyak kelemahan dan keterbatasan karena ia produk akal manusia yang serba terbatas. Akal manusia tidak mengetahui hakikat jiwa manusia dan kebutuhan dirinya sesuai dengan fitrah penciptaan yang digariskan oleh Allah. Sehingga hasil pikiran manusia banyak yang tidak sesuai dengan tabiat manusia itu sendiri.

Jalan satu-satunya adalah kembali kepada hukum yang diciptakan oleh Allah, Tuhan Yang Maha Tahu tentang manusia.

B. Mencakup Semua Aspek Kehidupan

Dibanding dengan hukum-hukum lain, Fiqih memiliki keistimewaan, yaitu bahwa ia mencakup tiga hubungan manusia; hubungan manusia dengan Allah sebagai Tuhan satu-satunya, hubungan dengan dirinya sendiri, dan hubungan dengan masyarakat. Sebab fiqih ini adalah untuk kepentingan dunia dan akhirat, kepentingan agama dan negara, dan untuk semua manusia hingga hari kiamat.

Hukum-hukum fiqih adalah perpaduan kekuatan antara akidah, ibadah, akhlak, dan muamalat. Dari kesadaran jiwa, perasaan tanggung jawab, merasa diawasi Allah dalam segala kondisi, penghargaan atas hak-hak maka lahirlah sikap ridha, ketenangan, keimanan, kebagiaan, dan kehidupan individu social yang teratur.

Hukum-hukum terkait dengan hubungan manusia dengan Tuhannya, seperti hukum-hukum shalat, puasa, dan lain-lain. Sebagian ahli fiqih menyatakan bahwa jumlah ayat yang berkenaan dengan ibadah ini ada 140 ayat. Hukum yang mengatur hubungan manusia dengan dirinya, seperti apa yang boleh dia lakukan dan apa yang tidak boleh dari makanan, minuman dan pakaian. Hal ini disyariatkan untuk menjaga diri manusia; akal dan fisik. Untuk hubungan manusia dengan sesama diatur dengan hukum-hukum muamalat dan uqubat (hukum pidana), seperti jual beli, sewa-menyewa, nikah, qishash, hudud, ta’zir, peradilan, persaksian.

Untuk itu dalam fiqih ada dua bab besar dalam fiqih yaitu hukum- hukum ibadah dan hukum-hukum mualat, seperti yan dijelas sebelumnya. Dengan demikian, fiqih diciptakan untuk menjaga lima prinsip dasar manusia; yaitu akal, agama, jiwa, agama, dan kehormatan. Maka fiqih sesungguhnya ingin mecetak manusia yang religi, sehat akal, sehat jiwa, terhormat, suci hartanya.

Dr. Wahbah Az Zuhaili membagi hukum-hukum muamalat dibagi-bagi oleh ulama menjadi beberapa bab:[1]

1. Al Ahwal Asy Syakhsiyah

Yaitu yang terkait dengan keluarga, termasuk hukum-hukum pernikahan, talak, nasab, nafkah, warisan. Hukum-hukum ini bertujuan mengatur hubungan antara suami istri dan kekerabatan yang lebih dikenal dengan “hukum perdata.”

2. Al Ahkam Al Madaniyah

Hukum-hukum kemasyarakatan, yaitu terkait dengan transaksi personal berupa jual beli, sewa menyewa, pergadaian, kafalah (asuransi), kerja sama, hutan piutang, menepati janji. Hukum-hukum ini bertujuan mengatur hubungan personal dari sisi harta dan keuangan sehingga hak-hak masing-masing terjaga.

3. Al Ahkam Al Jina’iyah

Hukum kriminalitas yang dilakukan oleh seseorang dan sanksi yang dikenakan. Tujuan dari hukum ini adalah menjaga eksistensi kehidupan manusia, harta, kehormatan dan hak-hak mereka, memberi kepastian hubungan antara korban kriminal dan pelaku kriminal, dan menciptakan keamanan. Dalam Al Quran terdapat sekitar 30 ayat terkait dengan hukum-hukum kriminalitas.

4. Al Ahkam Al Murafa’at

Hukum-hukum peradilan, tuntutan hukum, persaksian, sumpah, dan lain-lain. Tujuannya adalah mengatur prosedur penegakan keadilan antara menusia dengan syariat Islam. Dalam Al Quran terdapat sekitar 20 ayat yang berbicara mengenai masalah ini.

5. Al Ahkam Ad Dusturiyah

Hukum yang terkait dengan perundang-undang yang mengatur antara penguasa dan rakyat dan menjelaskan hak dan kewajiban individu dan kelompok.

6. Al Ahkam Ad Dauliyah

Hukum-hukum yang mengatur hubungan negara Islam dengan negara lainnya terkait dengan perdamaian dan perang, hubungan antara warga negara non Muslim dengan negara Islam yang ia tinggali, hukum-hukum jihad dan perjanjian. Tujuannya agar tercipta kerja sama, saling menghormati antar satu negara dengan lainnya.

7. Al Ahkam Al Iqtishadiyah Wa Al Maaliyah

Hukum-hukum yang terkait dengan hak-hak individu terhadap harta benda (kepemilikan), hak-hak dan kewajiban negara di bidang harta benda, pengaturan sumber kekayaan negara dan anggaran-anggarannya. Tujuannya adalah mengatur hubungan kepemilikan antara orang yang kaya dan miskin dan antara negara dengan warga negara. Ini mencakup harta benda negara, seperti harta rampasan, pajak, kekayaan alam, harta zakat, shadaqah, nazar, pinjaman, wasiat, laba perdagangan, harta sewa menyewa, perusahaan, kaffarat, diyat dan lain-lain.

C. Konsep Halal Haram

Semua perbuatan, sikap dan tindakan sosial dalam fiqih selalu ada konsep agama tentang halal haram. Dalam hal ini ada dua bentuk hukum muamalat:

a. Hukum duniawi yang diambil berdasarkan indikasi tindakan dan bukti lahir dan tidak ada hubungannya dengan batin. Ini adakah hukum pengadilan; karena seorang hakim memberikan vonis sesuai dengan bukti yang ada semampunya. Vonis hakim ini tidak bisa mengubah sesuatu yang batil menjadi benar dan. sebaliknya dalam realitas, tidak mengubah yang haram menjadi halal dan sebaliknya. Vonis seorang hakim bersifat mengikat, berbeda dengan fatwa.

b. Hukum ukhrawi yang didasarkan kepada sesuatu yang sebenarnya (hakikat sesuatu baik yang lahir atau batin.

Hal ini berlaku antara seseorang dengan Allah. Hukum inilah yang dijadikan dasar oleh seorang ahli fatwa; fatwa adalah pemberian informasi tentang hukum syariat tanpa mengikat.

Kedua jenis hukum inilah yang ditegaskan dalam sebuah hadits Rasulullah Shalallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam yang diriwayatkan oleh Malik, Ahmad dan lainnya,

”Sesungguhnya aku manusia. Jika kalian bersengketa kepadaku, mungkin salah satu dari kalian lebih kuat bukti dan alasannya dari yang lain, maka saya menghukumi berdasarkan apa yang saya dengar. Jika saya memutuskan sesuatu yang berpihak kepada seseorang dengan mengambil hak seorang Muslim secara tidak benar (tanpa saya ketahui) maka itu adalah potongan dari neraka. Jika ia mau silahkan mengambil atau meninggalkannya.”

Hukum-hukum duniawi semacam ini kebanyakan terkait dengan talak (perceraian), sumpah, utang, pelepasan hak, pemaksaan. Misalnya, seseorang yang secara tidak sengaja mencerai istrinya. Maka keputusan hakim adalah jatuh talak sementara menurut hukum ukhrawi tidak jatuh talak.

D. Berlandaskan Kaidah Paten Tapi Fleksibel

Landasan itu adalah Al Quran dan sunnah tertulis dengan rapi dan teliti. Teks-teks di kedua sumber ini bersifat suci dan sacral yang mengandung hukum-hukum global dan tidak terinci. Ini memungkinkan para ahli fiqih melakukan ijtihad menyimpulkan hukum secara terinci sesuai dengan kondisi dan realitas dilapangan. Namun demikian ada batasan yang selalu dijaga oleh para mujtahid. Muncullah kemudian kaidah-kaidah fiqih yang dijadikan pegangan dalam pengambilan hukum.

Nash-nash (teks) syariat, misalnya, tidak menyinggung system hukum secara detail, tapi hanya memberikan garis besarnya seperti; menjamin keadilan antar rakyat, taat kepada ulil amr (penguasa pemerintahan), konsep syura, kerja sama dalam kebajikan dan ketakwaan dan seterusnya.

Penerapan garis-garis besar itu diserahkan kepada kondisi dan realitas di lapangan. Yang terpenting adalah bagaimana tujuannya tercapai terlepas dari sarana yang digunakan asal tidak bertentangan dengan syariat.

 

E. Prinsip Memberi Kemudahan

Sebaliknya, fiqih memberikan kemudahan dan keringanan kepada manusia. Islam hanya mewajibkan shalat lima kali sehari semalam. Jika tidak mampu dilakukan dengan berdiri, boleh dilakukan dengan duduk, jika tidak mampu duduk, maka dengan berbaring.

Dan keringanan lain terkait dengan tayammum, shalat qasar, jamak, qadha, dan lain-lain. Juga ada keringanan dalam puasa, zakat, kaffarat (denda) akibat kesalahan yang dilakukan. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala berfirman:

“Allah menghendaki kemudahan bagimu, dan tidak menghendaki kesukaran bagimu. Dan hendaklah kamu mencukupkan bilangannya dan hendaklah kamu mengagungkan Allah atas petunjuk-Nya yang diberikan kepadamu, supaya kamu bersyukur.” (QS Al Baqarah: 185)

Karenanya, Allah juga melarang kepada seseorang untuk menyakan sesuatu yang menimbulkan hukum yang lebih berat.

“Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu menanyakan hal-hal yang jika diterangkan kepadamu akan menyusahkan kamu dan jika kamu menanyakan di waktu Al Quran itu diturunkan, niscaya akan diterangkan kepadamu, Allah mema’afkan tentang hal-hal itu. Allah Maha Pengampun lagi Maha Penyantun.” (QS Al Maidah: 101).

F. Fiqih Adalah Khazanah Islam Yang Luas

Sepanjang sejarah, tidak ada referensi dan karangan yang sarat dengan khazanah ilmu dan pemikiran melebihi fiqih. Disana akan ditemui segala macam pandangan ulama dari berbagai mazhab dan aliran.

Dalam Islam ada empat aliran fiqih besar dan masing-masing madzab itu memiliki riwayat dan pendapat, baik yang disepakati atau yang dipersilihkan dan setiap pandang memiliki alasan dan dalil.

Setiap masalah dalam kehidupan manusia seakan tak luput dari pembahasan fiqih dari masalah yang terkecil hingga terbesar.

G. Mengikuti Perkembangan Zaman

Fiqih memiliki kaidah yang tidak akan berubah hingga akhir zaman, seperti kaidah; transaksi harus dilakukan saling ridha, pemberian ganti rugi jika ada kerusakan, pemberantasan kriminal, pemeliharaan hak-hak, tanggung jawab individu. Sementara fiqih yang didasarkan atas qiyas, masalahil mursalah, dan adat istiadat bisa berubah sesuai dengan kebutuhan zaman dan kemaslahatan manusia, dengan batasan yang tidak bertengangan dengan syariat.

 


[1] Dr. Wahbah Az-Zuhaili, Al Fiqhul Islami wa Adillatuhu, jilid 1 hal.

 

Faidza ‘Azamta Fatawakkal ‘Alallah…….

Assalamualaikum Wr Wb

Detik-detik menjelang final exam kian dekat, sudahkah antum semua mempersiapkan diri dengan sebaik-baiknya?

Faidza ‘Azamta Fatawakkal ‘ adalah kalimat inspiratif  yang digunakan sebagian kita untuk menjaga semangat khususnya dalam misi-misi ‘mission imposible’

Faidza ‘Azamta Fatawakkal ‘Alallah..

Ya, Dan apabila kamu telah membulatkan tekad, maka bertawakallah kepada Allah..

ketika azzam telah terbulatkan, tekad telah menjadi sandingan…dan ikhtiar, berusaha seoptimal dengan segala daya upaya dan kekuatan yang bisa dilakukan….

bertawakkal kepada Allah dan mengadu kepada-Nya dalam setiap sujud… sujud yang lebih lama dari biasanya, pinta yang lebih tulus…

Menengadahkan tangan dari hamba yang ‘tak pantas’, memohon kepada Sang Maha Pemberi dan hanya kepada-Nya lah bergantung

dan yang bisa kita lakukan adalah…

Mata yang lebih jauh menatap dari biasanya

Tangan menengadah yang lebih lama dari biasanya

Kaki yang lebih jauh melangkah dari biasanya

hati yang lebih teguh dari seklibat baja

Senantiasa memandang indah rencana-Nya

 

 

Faidza ‘Azamta Fatawakkal ‘Alallah

 

Yaa Malik, Yaa Sami’

Yaa Rahim, Yaa Rahman

Yaa Jabar, Yaa Fattah

Yaa Bassit, Yaa Qaabiz

Yaa Karim, Yaa Wadud

Yaa Mujib, Yaa Waajid

Yaa Rashid, Yaa Haadi….

Yaa Allah…

Ikhwan fillah, mari kita resapi ayat AlQur’an yang telah sama-sama kita hafal.

 

FAINNAMA’AL ‘USRI YUSRA.INNA MA’AL ‘USRI YUSRA. 

maka sesungguhnya dlm tiap2 kesusahan itu ada kemudahan,sesungguhnya dlm tiap2 kesusahan itu ada kemudahan”

 

Ikhwan fillah, ingin rasanya ana berjumpa dengan antum, namun ana tidak ingin mengganggu persiapan antum dalam belajar, maka hanya untaian do’a yang dapat ana sampaikan dan juga dapat antum aplikasikan:

“Allahummaj’allumi wal imtihanaati minannasihiina”,

Ya Allah jadikanlah belajar & ujianku berada dalam keberhasilan.

“Allaahumma ‘allimnii bimaa yanfa’unii wanfa’nii bimaa ‘allamtanii innaka antal ‘aliimulkhabiiru”

“Ya Allah, ajarilah aku akan segala hal yang bermanfaat bagiku dan berilah manfaat semua pengetahuan yang telah aku pelajari. Sungguh Engkau Zat Yang Maha Mengetahui dan Maha Bijaksana ”

 

Ikhwan fillah…jika antum sudah berusaha untuk belajar dengan sebaik-baiknya, maka “STOP STRESS JUST DO YOUR BEST”.
Last but not least, “DO NOT STUDY HARD BUT STUDY SMART”

 

Semoga pesan ana dapat bermanfaat.

Innallaha ma’ana, sesungguhnya Allah bersama kita.

 

Wassalamu’alaikum.

 

Ustadz Taufik Subhi Ahmad

Kuala Lumpur, 2 June 2012

Indonesian Student Association Activities-UM (Saman Dance Practicing)

Assalamualaykum Warrahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

How are you doing , “friend of virtual blogger and surfer”?

Long time no to post about the color of our life. Hopefully, this month can be utilized to be very productive to write and keep updating this blog instead of  being productive in the college life. ^_^

Today, the writer is willing to update the activity of Indonesian Student Association about the SAMAN Dance practicing. Friday (20/4/2012) was the 1st time for the novice junior to practice Saman dance with our respective senior (leaded by Kak Mirratu and the others). All of the new members are currently recruited from the 1st year of Indonesian student in UM. All of us are eager to learn how to dance SAMAN well. (heheeheeh..altough we realize that it is not easy ^_^ but we do believe that by practicing gradually, we are able to dance SAMAN as well then. Our seniors are very lenient to guide and teach us how to dance saman as well as possible. Moreover, teaching the boys member (hahahahah)….

Our seniors have us to practice twice a week before the UM International Cultural Fair 2012 that will be held by the UMISA – University of Malaya  in the second week of May 2012 .  In this event, each country has to perform their cultural legacy , cultural staff and special culinary in the food stall .

Expectedly, we can perform as well as possible to represent Indonesia  and PPI UM. Amin Allahuma Amin..BARAKALLAH..Semangat KAWANNN^_^

The New PPI UM Saman Dance 2012 Members with the professional Saman Dance SENIORS (heheheh..)

(Taking the ALAY Photo after practicing SAMAN in KPS) Sunday,22/4/2012

Break Session…Tetap Semangat Latihan

Our Respective SENIORS who are professional and talented to perform SAMAN DANCE (Kak Umu, Kak Dwi, Kak Ratu, Kak Febri)